50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology: Shattering Widespread - download pdf or read online

Cultural Studies

By Scott O. Lilienfeld, Steven Jay Lynn, John Ruscio, Barry L. Beyerstein

50 nice Myths of renowned Psychology makes use of renowned myths as a motor vehicle for assisting scholars and laypersons to differentiate technological know-how from pseudoscience.
* makes use of universal myths as a car for exploring tips to distinguish genuine from fictional claims in well known psychology
* Explores issues that readers will relate to, yet frequently misunderstand, equivalent to "opposites attract", "people use simply 10% in their brains", and "handwriting unearths your personality"
* offers a "mythbusting kit" for comparing people psychology claims in daily life
* Teaches crucial serious considering abilities via particular discussions of every fantasy
* contains over 2 hundred extra mental myths for readers to explore
* includes an Appendix of helpful sites for interpreting mental myths
* incorporates a postscript of exceptional mental findings that sound like myths yet which are precise
* attractive and obtainable writing sort that appeals to scholars and lay readers alike

Five tremendous Myths of well known Psychology
Amazon-exclusive content material from Scott O. Lilienfeld, Steven Jay Lynn, John Ruscio, and Barry L. Beyerstein, the authors of 50 nice Myths of well known Psychology

Virtually each day, the inside track media, tv indicates, movies, and net bombard us with claims concerning a number of mental themes: psychics, out of physique reports, recovered stories, and lie detection, to call in simple terms a couple of. Even an off-the-cuff walk via our local book shop finds dozens of self-help, dating, restoration, and dependancy books that serve up beneficiant parts of recommendation for directing our paths alongside life’s rocky highway. but many renowned psychology assets are rife with misconceptions. certainly, in today’s fast paced global of data overload, misinformation approximately psychology is at the least as common as exact details. Self-help authorities, tv speak convey hosts, and self-proclaimed psychological well-being specialists repeatedly dispense mental suggestion that’s a bewildering mixture of truths, half-truths, and outright falsehoods. with out a liable journey consultant for checking out mental delusion from truth, we’re in danger for changing into misplaced in a jungle of “psychomythology.”

In our new e-book, 50 nice Myths of well known Psychology: Shattering common Misconceptions approximately Human Nature, we study extensive 50 common myths in renowned psychology (along with nearly 250 different myths and “mini-myths”), current learn facts demonstrating that those ideals are fictional, discover their ramifications in pop culture and way of life, and hint their mental and sociological origins. right here, in David Letterman-like type, we current - in no specific order – our personal applicants for 5 giant myths of renowned psychology.

Myth # 1: Most humans use in simple terms 10% in their mind power
There are a number of purposes to doubt that ninety% of our brains lie silent. At a trifling 2-3% of our bodyweight, our mind consumes over 20% of the oxygen we breathe. It’s incredible that evolution might have approved the squandering of assets on a scale essential to construct and keep this sort of vastly underutilized organ. additionally, wasting a long way lower than ninety% of the mind to coincidence or ailment often has catastrophic results (Kolb & Whishaw, 2003).

How did the ten% fable start? One clue leads again a few century to psychologist William James, who as soon as wrote that he doubted that normal individuals in achieving greater than approximately 10% in their intellectual potential. even if James talked by way of underdeveloped power, a slew of confident considering experts remodeled “10% of our capacity” into “10% of our brain” (Beyerstein, 1999).

Myth # 2: It’s greater to specific anger than to carry it in
If you’re like most folk, you think that liberating anger is more healthy than bottling it up. in a single survey, sixty six% of undergraduates agreed that expressing pent-up anger--sometimes referred to as “catharsis”--is an efficient technique of decreasing one’s danger for aggression (Brown, 1983).

Yet greater than forty years of study finds that expressing anger at once towards someone else or not directly (such as towards an item) truly turns up the warmth on aggression (Bushman, Baumeister, & Stack, 1999; Tavris, 1988). study means that expressing anger is useful basically while it’s followed via confident problem-solving designed to handle the resource of the anger (Littrell, 1998).

Why is that this delusion so well known? potentially, humans usually mistakenly characteristic the truth that they think greater when they exhibit anger to catharsis, instead of to the truth that anger frequently subsides by itself after awhile (Lohr, Olatunji, Baumeister, & Bushman, 2007).

Myth # 3: Low vainness is a massive reason behind mental Problems
Many well known psychologists have lengthy maintained that low vainness is a major offender in producing dangerous behaviors, together with violence, melancholy, nervousness, and alcoholism. the conceit flow has stumbled on its means into mainstream academic practices. a few athletic leagues award trophies to all schoolchildren to prevent making wasting opponents believe inferior (Sommers & Satel, 2005). furthermore, the web is chock jam-packed with academic items meant to spice up children’s vainness.

But there’s a fly within the ointment: learn exhibits that low self worth isn’t strongly linked to negative psychological well-being. In a painstakingly - and possibly painful! - evaluation, Roy Baumeister and his colleagues (2003) canvassed over 15,000 reviews linking vainness to almost each feasible mental variable. they discovered that vanity is minimally relating to interpersonal luck, and never always relating to alcohol or drug abuse. might be such a lot astounding of all, they discovered that “low vanity is neither priceless nor enough for depression” (Baumeister et al., 2003, p. 6).

Myth # 4: Human reminiscence works like a tape recorder or video digital camera, and appropriately files the occasions we’ve experienced
Despite the occasionally all-too-obvious failings of daily reminiscence, surveys exhibit that many of us think that their stories function greatly like tape recorders, video cameras, or DVDs. It’s real that we regularly bear in mind tremendous emotional occasions, also known as flashbulb memories simply because they appear to have a photographic caliber (Brown & Kulik, 1977). however, study indicates that even those stories wither through the years and are susceptible to distortions (Krackow, Lynn, & Payne, 2005-2006).

Today, there’s vast consensus between psychologists that reminiscence isn’t reproductive—it doesn’t reproduction accurately what we’ve experienced—but reconstructive. What we remember is usually a blurry mix of actual and faulty memories, in addition to what jells with our ideals and hunches. instead of viewing our reminiscence as a tape recorder, we will be able to extra aptly describe our reminiscence as an ever-changing medium that highlights our skill to create fluid narratives of our studies.

Myth # 5: Hypnosis is a special “trance” country that differs in variety from wakefulness
Popular video clips and books painting the hypnotic trance kingdom as so robust that in a different way common humans will dedicate an assassination (The Manchurian Candidate); devote suicide (The backyard Murders); understand just a person’s inner attractiveness (Shallow Hal); and our favourite, fall sufferer to brainwashing by way of alien preachers who use messages embedded in sermons (Invasion of the distance Preachers).

But study indicates that hypnotized humans can face up to or even oppose hypnotic feedback (Lynn, Rhue, & Weekes, 1990; Nash, 2001), and won’t do issues which are out of personality, like harming humans they dislike. moreover, hypnosis bears not more than a superficial resemblance to sleep: mind wave reports exhibit that hypnotized everyone is awake.

So there’s no cause to think that hypnosis differs in sort from basic wakefulness. as an alternative, hypnosis seems to be just one method between many for expanding people’s responses to feedback.

More information regarding every one of those myths and an entire record of references come in 50 nice Myths of well known Psychology.

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Additional resources for 50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology: Shattering Widespread Misconceptions about Human Behavior

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3 The Great Fourfold Table of Life. In most cases, we attend too much to the A cell, which can result in illusory correlation. qxd 30/6/09 11:44 AM Page 12 examine all four cells of the Great Fourfold Table of Life: Cell A, which consists of instances when there’s a full moon and a psychiatric hospital admission, Cell B, which consists of instances when there’s a full moon but no psychiatric hospital admission, Cell C, which consists of instances when there’s no full moon and a psychiatric hospital admission, and Cell D, which consists of instances when there’s no full moon and no psychiatric hospital admission.

Numerous studies demonstrate that a history of physical abuse in childhood increases one’s odds of becoming an aggressive person in adulthood (Widom, 1989). Many investigators have interpreted this statistical association as implying that childhood physical abuse causes physical aggression in later life; indeed, this interpretation is called the “cycle of violence” hypothesis. In this case, the investigators are assuming that childhood physical abuse (A) causes adult violence (B). Is this explanation necessarily right?

With the aid of brain imaging techniques, such as electroencepholograms (EEGs), positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines, researchers have succeeded in localizing a vast number of psychological functions to specific brain areas. With nonhuman animals, and occasionally with humans undergoing neurological treatment, researchers can insert recording probes into the brain. Despite this detailed mapping, no quiet areas awaiting new assignments have emerged.

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