Get A Basic UNIX Tutorial PDF

C

By Byrd J.

This instructional contains fourteen sections, every one of which addresses a basic element of UNIX computing. It concentrates on illustrating the important thoughts by way of delivering brief motives, besides examples, and routines.

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When you issue a command to the shell, the shell searches sequentially through each directory in the PATH list until it finds an executable program with the command name you typed. USER The USER variable contains your username. Any time you access a file or directory, the access permissions are checked against the value of USER. HOME The HOME variable contains the name of your home directory. When you issue the cd command with no directory argument, you will be placed in the directory defined in the HOME environment variable.

Feel free to create your own custom commands. # The command 'printers' is necessary for the proper functioning of the cwis # printer-choosing utility. The 'printers' program changes the line that # sets default printer queue in this file, and this file gets "run" again # to load the new value into the user environment. # The command 'more' is altered to call the more capable 'less' pager. Disable # this alias if you want to use the 'more' pager. # The command 'ls' is set up to identify executable # files with an * and directories with a /.

Quotas allow the system administrator to place limits on the amount of space the users can allocate. Quotas usually place restrictions on the amount of space, and the number of files, that a user can take. The limit can be a soft limit, where only a warning is generated, or a hard limit, where no further operations that create files will be allowed. The command quota will let you know if you're over your soft limit. Adding the -v option will provide statistics about your disk usage. File system related commands Here are some commands related to file system usage, and other topics discussed in this section: bdf On HP-UX systems, reports file system usage statistics df On HP-UX systems, reports on free disk blocks, and i-nodes du Summarizes disk usage in a specified directory hierarchy ln Creates a hard link (default), or a soft link (with -s option) mount, umount Attaches, or detaches, a file system (super user only) mkfs Constructs a new file system (super user only) fsck Evaluates the integrity of a file system (super user only) A brief tour of the Unix filesystem The actual locations and names of certain system configuration files will differ under different implementations of Unix.

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