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Although there can be variability in speech behaviours at onset (see chapters 6 and 10), stuttering at this time typically comprises only word or syllable repetition (Bloodstein, 1995; Howell, Au Yeung, & Sackin, 1999) and is usually void of struggle, avoidance, or speech-related anxiety. Relatedly, there are usually no signs of the “tricks” such as head nodding and foot tapping that many older children and adults who stutter develop in an effort to control the disorder. Yet the transition from easy and relaxed repetitions to effortful struggle-related blocks and prolongations can take place quickly and such changes signal the likelihood that the stutter will go on to become chronic, and that spontaneous recovery is less likely.

Moore and Haynes (1980, reported in Moore, 1984) concluded: Stuttering may emerge when both hemispheric processing of incoming information and motor programming of segmental linguistic units is in the right hemisphere (a non-segmental processor). These processing differences may be related to an inability, under certain circumstances, to handle the segmentation aspects of language. This may suggest the 28 Stuttering and cluttering importance of linguistic segmentation as it relates to motor programming in some stutterers.

1 Example of some possible demands and capacities. Take, for example, the finding reported in chapter 7 that identical twins have been found to show extremely high concordance (similarity between both twins) for stuttering, but not 100 percent. This means that although there is a strong likelihood that a genetic component is involved, some also appear to require the interaction of environmental influences in order to result in stuttering. Thus, for these speakers, the reduced capacity (genetic predisposition) only results in stuttering under certain environmental contingencies which increase demand.

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