New PDF release: Chemical Science and Conservation
By David Burgess (auth.)
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Additional resources for Chemical Science and Conservation
2 An electrochemical (galvanic) cell. The two metals, zinc and copper, dip into a solution of one of their salts, respectively. The metals are connected to each other by conducting wires which, in tum, are connected to a high-resistance voltmeter, V. The two solutions are joined by a conducting salt bridge, to complete the circuit. Electrons flow from the zinc to the copper the concentration of the salt solutions and the temperature. By convention, the standard electrode potential, E -e- volts, is that developed at 25°C when a metal is in contact with a salt solution of concentration 1 moVdm and is connected to a standard hydrogen electrode (see any 'A' -level textbook of physical chemistry for details).
If left untreated at a pH above 9, the silicate network breaks down and the glass may become so badly crizzled that small flakes break off when the glass is handled. 36 DATING GLASS Weathering of glass in a cyclical manner - due to seasonal changes in temperature or bacterial attack, perhaps - can produce a series of crusts superimposed one upon another. 4). However, the technique is far from unambiguous and is used in conjunction with other dating methods where possible. 3. It seems hardly necessary to add that acid rain, containing dissolved oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, aggravates attack on exposed glass.
The composition of this actually resembles that of the mineral goethite, FeO·OH: O2 Fe 2+(aq) + 20H-(aq) ~ Fe(OHh(s) ~ FeO·OH(s) With a limited oxygen supply, the product may be a green mixture of iron(II) and iron(III) hydroxides, or black as a result of the presence of anhydrous magnetite, Fe304. Other Sources of Metallic Corrosion Electrochemical action may arise through a single metal remaining in contact with an electrolyte of non-homogeneous concentration, particularly of dissolved oxygen.