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By Dr John Powell DSc, DIC, CEng, CPhys (auth.)

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Obviously, a 1 mm diameter blast generated hole in the centre of a 2 mm diameter cut hole will, by conductive heating and material removal, severely upset the heat sinking capabilities of the material inside the 2 mm diameter circle and could result in unwanted material burning. Blast Drilling. Exposing the material to a stationary focused beam with its coaxial oxygen jet will quickly generate a shallow weld which then exothermically oxidises. As the volume of melt grows, the oxygen jet will cause a depression in its centre and will then force the melt out of the area.

14. a Any cross section of a "Gaussian" beam should have an energy distribution which follows this type of curve (see Fig. 13). b The curve in a is derived from the mathematically calculated Gaussian curve. As this curve continues decreasing to infinity the laser industry has found it necessary to use a truncated form of the curve which is usually cut off at the l/e 2 level as shown. Some scientists prefer to truncate the curve at the lie level (for further information on modes see Chap. 9). 1\[1\ Cross section A Plan (hollow centre) Cross section B (at 90° to A) Fig.

A Rectilinear overshooting; b circular overshooting. Laser Cutting Steels 38 pensating for its natural tendency to overshoot corners as a result of its momentum and the response time of the CNC controller. Use of a deliberate circular overshoot on corners can, therefore, not only eliminate burning, but can increase the geometrical accuracy of the cut shape. Power Ramping. A complementary or alternative method to corner overshooting which helps to avoid burning on corners is power ramping. By this method the input power from the laser to the cutting zone is decreased to match the deceleration of the process at corners.

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