S. Assiyeh Alizadeh Tabatabai's Coagulation and Ultrafiltration in Seawater Reverse Osmosis PDF
By S. Assiyeh Alizadeh Tabatabai
This learn investigates the position of coagulation in bettering hydraulic functionality and permeate caliber of UF membranes and gives perception into techniques for minimizing or preferably disposing of coagulation from UF pre-treatment to SWRO. effects convey that coagulation improves UF hydraulic functionality quite often by way of lowering non-backwashable fouling of the membranes. this is often completed at very low coagulant dose (~ 1/2 mg Fe/L) through coating the membranes with sub-micron particles.
Additionally, the paintings highlights the applicability of UF membranes with low molecular weight cut-off because the coagulant unfastened way forward for SWRO pre-treatment. significant advantages when it comes to decreased environmental effect is anticipated while employing membranes with low molecular weight cut-off, because the want for coagulation is eradicated whereas making sure toughness of downstream SWRO membranes. typically phrases, the examine exhibits that coagulant intake may be considerably diminished in UF pre-treatment of SWRO by way of optimizing operational parameters and using substitute solutions.
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Extra resources for Coagulation and Ultrafiltration in Seawater Reverse Osmosis Pretreatment
Media filtration (including coagulation) has limited capacity in handling poor water quality and variations in quality. This is also true for extended pretreatment schemes including coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation prior to media filtration. One of the most challenging operational regimes for SWRO pretreatment is during periods of algal bloom where relatively high concentrations of algal cells and algal organic matter (AOM) are present in seawater. , GMF in combination with coagulation) cannot handle severe algal bloom events, highlighting the need for more robust pretreatment technology.
3 Biological fouling Bacteria has been shown to adhere, accumulate and multiply in RO systems which eventually result in the formation of a slimy layer of dense concentrations of bacteria and their extracellular polymeric substances known as biofilm. When the accumulation of biofilm reaches a certain threshold that operational problems are encountered in the membrane system, it is considered as biological fouling or biofouling (Flemming, 2002). , > 15%) decrease of normalised membrane flux, increase in net driving pressure 27 28 Coagulation and ultrafiltration in seawater reverse osmosis pretreatment and/or increase in feed channel pressure drop.
Meanwhile, Liberman and Berman (2006) proposed a set of tests to determine the microbial support capacity (MSC) of water samples, namely chlorophyll-a, TEP, bacterial activity, total bacterial count, inverted microscope observations of sedimented water samples, biological oxygen demand (BOD), total phosphorous and total nitrogen. More investigations are needed to assess the reliability of these parameters/monitors to predict the biofouling potential of algal bloom impaired seawater. 5 Proposed strategies to control algae and AOM fouling Reverse osmosis plants operating with direct/open source intake require extensive pretreatment of the raw water to maintain or prolong reliable performance and membrane life.