Download e-book for iPad: Energy: Resources, Technologies & The Environment by Christian Ngo

Environmental Studies

By Christian Ngo

This publication is geared toward scholars and pros in addition to someone drawn to having a world imaginative and prescient and point of view on power. during the last centuries, using coal and later oil and gasoline has allowed an exceptional raise within the lifestyle. over the last fifty years, the dominance of nuclear strength has given us entry to a fair extra strong resource of power. extra lately there was a revival in curiosity for renewable strength resources, that have for a very long time ruled the background of humanity. This new version has been totally up to date, describing strength resources from the previous, from this present day and for the long run in addition to concentrating on their usages by way of taking a look at all of the various concerns (technological, monetary, environmental etc). every one resource of strength is gifted with its merits and drawbacks. This ebook provides recommendation on tips on how to use strength extra successfully so one can develop into much less based upon fossil fuels, that are slowly being depleted and changing into increasingly more pricey. The inclusion of many tables and figures permits the reader to check facts on strength (e.g. on strength reserves, intake, creation etc)

The establishment of Engineering and know-how is likely one of the world's prime specialist societies for the engineering and know-how group. The IET publishes greater than a hundred new titles each year; a wealthy mixture of books, journals and magazines with a again catalogue of greater than 350 books in 18 assorted topic parts together with:

-Power & strength -Renewable strength -Radar, Sonar & Navigation -Electromagnetics -Electrical size -History of expertise -Technology administration

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Technology for synthesising liquid hydrocarbons from coal is a very important challenge for the future. At present, oil is irreplaceable for motorised transport. Synthetic fuels produced from coal could be far more useful than hydrogen and considerably extend the useful life of the combustion engine who’s technology and cost are well understood. A coupling of the internal combustion engine with a system made up of batteries and an electric motor (hybrid vehicle) makes it possible to reduce local pollution and emit less greenhouse gas.

Sea transport of gas is commercially viable for distances over 3000 km. 3 MTOE of gas consumed in France was produced locally. 857 TOE [5]. However, the calorific value of gas depends on its provenance, ranging for example from 33 MJ/m3 for Dutch gas to 42 MJ/m3 for Algerian gas [24]. 7 In France, there are 15 storage locations that make it easier to balance imported gas and consumption. There are 12 aquifer and 3 saline cavities representing about a third of annual consumption [24]. Gas use is still being expanded and this trend is likely to continue, for two reasons.

Global refining capacity in 2000 was 4 GTOE, which was in excess of requirements but the situation now is more problematic. 5 billion tonnes of refined products are transported by sea, making up 40% of the world’s maritime freight [19]. Oil tanker shipwrecks have caused a number of environmental disasters. However, the number of oil tanker accidents has reduced, with oil spills of more than 700 tonnes reducing from 24 per year in 1970–79 to 7 per year between 1990 and 1999 [20]. But the ones that do occur result in major media coverage, and many still remember the wreck of the Amoco Cadiz in Brittany in 1978, which spilled 220,000 tonnes of crude oil and polluted 300 km of Atlantic coastline.

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