Download PDF by John Howie: Ethical principles and practice


By John Howie

The second one quantity in utilized ethics according to the celebrated Wayne Leys Memorial Lectureship Series. With directions from felony reasoning, Michael D. Bayles examines “Moral conception and Application.” Abraham Edel questions “Ethics utilized Or behavior Enlightened?” The past due Warner A. Wick indicates in “The stable individual and the nice Society: a few beliefs silly and another way” that devotion to beliefs needn't be both fanaticism or foolishness. John Lachs contends that many public profits are bought on the rate of people being manipulated in “Public gain, inner most Costs.” James E. Childress in “Gift of Life…” considers moral matters in acquiring and dispensing human organs. Carl Wellman in “Terrorism and ethical Rights” argues that there should be no “rights-based justification” for anti-abortion terrorism.

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The major relevant ethical principles are respect for persons and their bodies, justice in the distribution of burdens and benefits, the involvement of the family in sharing, and the promotion of community through acts of generosity. Different ethical perspectives arise because these principles are weighed and applied in different ways. There may be several ethically acceptable actions even though there may be only one or perhaps a few ethically preferable actions. Both the acceptable and the preferable must be distinguished from the politically feasible.

However, sometimes one need not explicitly refer to the general moral theory; one can proceed, as in the example of information from genetic testing, by appeal to more general midlevel principles. Cases and Rules The evaluation of policies or actions is then done as much as possible by midlevel bridging principles. Sometimes one can formulate rules which help reconcile different implications of bridging principles. For example, a professional should never serve two clients whose interests are in direct conflict in a transaction.

Anyone who works with a disadvantaged group is likely to develop a sympathy and advocacy on their behalf that does not take cognizance of the similar situation of others. This can lead to ethical claims that cannot be consistently supported. For example, advocates for mentally retarded persons argue for changes in zoning laws to permit multiple family housing in areas zoned for single families. However, once one argues for changes in zoning regulations for mentally retarded persons, one might not be able to provide a principled reason why such changes should not also be made for the elderly, battered wives, the mentally ill, former drug addicts, and ex-convicts.

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