Download e-book for iPad: Field Guide to Interferometric Optical Testing by Eric P. Goodwin

Optics

By Eric P. Goodwin

A distillation of Dr. Wyant's path at collage of Arizona, this box advisor covers the major basics of interferometry, varieties of interferometers and interferograms, suggestions of phase-shifting interferometry, long-wavelength interferometry, checking out of aspheric surfaces, size of floor microstructure, flat and curved floor trying out, and absolute measurements.

Contents

- thesaurus
- basics of Interferometry
- Interferometers
- Interferograms
- Phase-Shifting Interferometry
- floor Microstructure
- Flat floor checking out
- Curved house trying out
- Absolute Measurements
- Asphere trying out
- Appendices
- Equation precis
- Bibliography
- Index

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Each of the four images passes through a different birefringent phase mask, which introduces a phase shift between the test and reference beams of 0◦ , 90◦ , 180◦ and 270◦ . Finally, a polarizer with its transmission axis at 45◦ to the two polarization states is placed after the phase mask so that the beams interfere. This system is compact and easy to align. By simultaneously capturing all four interferograms, this system is insensitive to vibration. By capturing several frames, the phase as a function of time can be measured and displayed in the form of a “phase movie”.

D = 0. If ν is the frequency change in the source, φFreq is the phase error. φFreq = 2π d ν c Irradiance fluctuations in the light source also introduce errors in the measured phase. If N is the number of steps in the algorithm and SNR is the signal to noise ratio, then the standard deviation of the phase is σφ,I . σφ,I = 1 √ SNR N Phase-Shifting Interferometry 41 Incorrect Phase Shift Incorrect phase shifts between data frames come in two forms. The first is if the phase shifting mechanism is miscalibrated, so that the error is a linear error, ε.

The Wollaston prism splits the light into two beams of orthogonal polarizations propagating at slightly different angles. Surface Microstructure 47 Nomarski Interference Microscope The two sheared beams are both incident on the test surface but are slightly offset as a result of the shear. The shear at the test surface is set to be comparable to the optical resolution of the microscope objective, so only one image will be seen in the image plane. The beams reflect back through the prism and are recombined.

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