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By Marcus E. Raichle (auth.), Mladen Vranic, Suad Efendic, Charles H. Hollenberg (eds.)
This publication has a twin function, to study intensive the keep watch over of gas homeostasis within the mind and the position of the anxious approach within the regulate of gas deposition within the physique. From the methodological perspective the emphasis is at the software of complex applied sciences to evaluate gasoline shipping and mind metabolism, the position of peptides within the neuroendocrine method and the reaction of the mind to hypoglycemia. those applied sciences contain positron emmission tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance, immunocytochemistry, molecular biology, autoradiography. to review gasoline homeostasis within the physique complicated tracer tools that come with modelling are set out. From the pathophysiological perspective the emphasis is on abnormalities in rigidity, mind metabolism in diabetes, consuming and degenerative problems. This booklet comprises contributions from endocrinologists, physiologists, neurologists, psychoneuroendocrinOlogists, biophysicists, biochemists and specialists in food. This authorship represents a different range of researchers who, for the 1st time, conceal comprehensively the interplay among the frightened procedure and gas homeostasis, either in overall healthiness and illness. we are hoping this booklet can be an immense resource of data for either researchers and practising clinicians. Mladen Vranic Suad Efendic Charles Hollenberg v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Symposium from which this quantity arose (University of Toronto, June 27-28, 1990) was once the 1st Toronto-Stockholm symposium on views in Diabetes study. those Symposia are equipped triennially by way of the Banting and top Diabetes Centre, collage of Toronto and the dept of Endocrinology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
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1980). This technique of autoradiographic and tomographic imaging of altered local metabolism offers a powerful tool with which to map normal and abnormal functional neural pathways in the nervous system. , 1976) (Fig. 4). 33 TABLE 5. Representative values for local cerebral glucose utilization in the normal, conscious albino rat and monkey Albino Rat (lO)a Structure Monkey (7)b Gray Hatter Visual Cortex Auditory Cortex Parietal Cortex Sensory-Motor Cortex Thalamus: Lateral Nucleus Thalamus: Ventral Nucleus Medial Geniculate Body Lateral Geniculate Body Hypothalamus Mammillary Body Hippocampus Amygdala Caudate-Putamen Nucleus Accumbens Globus Pallidus Substantia Nigra Vestibular Nucleus Cochlear Nucleus Superior Olivary Nucleus Inferior Colliculus Superior Colliculus Pontine Gray Matter Cerebellar Cortex Cerebellar Nucleus 107 ± 162 ± 6 5 120 ± 5 109 ± 5 ll2 ± ll6 ± 5 48 ± 4 5 54 ± 2 43 ± 2 65 ± 3 39 ± 1 25 ± 1 57 ± 3 39 ± 2 25 ± 2 52 ± 3 36 ± 2 26 ± 2 29 ± 2 66 ± 3 51 ± 3 63 ± 4 103 ± 6 55 ± 4 28 ± 1 31 ± 2 45 ± 2 131 ± 96 ± 54 ± 5 5 2 ll3 ± 133 ± 7 121 ± 5 79 ± 3 52 ± 2 llO ± 4 82 ± 3 58 ± 2 58 ± 3 128 ± 5 197 95 62 57 100 59 ± 3 79 ± 4 7 ± 10 ± 5 ± 3 ± 2 ± 4 44 ± 3 White Hatter Corpus Callosum Internal Capsule Cerebellar White Matter 40 ± 33 ± 37 ± 2 2 2 II 13 ± ± 1 1 12 ± 1 Weighted Average for Whole Brain 68 ± 3 36 ± 1 Note: The values are Means ± SEM.
19 •20 It has been hypothesized that these symptoms of hypoglycemia, despite blood sugar concentrations in the 100-150 mg% range, are bona fide and represent glucopenia owing to down-regulation of the BBB glucose transporter. That is, the concentration of glucose in brain is a function, not only of the concentration of sugar in blood, but also of the BBB glucose transporter activity. Several years ago two groups provided physiologic evidence that rats with streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes mellitus demonstrated a decrease in the activity of the BBB glucose transporter.
The one on the left, contralateral to occluded eye, has a continuous dark lamina corresponding to Layer IV which is completely absent on the side ipsilateral to the occluded eye. These regions are believed to be the loci of the cortical representations of the blind spots of the visual fields. From Kennedy et al. (1976). EFFECTS OF INSULIN EffecLs on LransporL of hexoses beLween blood and brain. Insulin is known to enhance hexose transport from blood into a variety of insulinsensitive tissues, and the insulin-sensitivity of brain has long been a matter of controversy.