Fundamentals of Thermal-Fluid Sciences - download pdf or read online
The second one variation of basics of Thermal-Fluid Sciences provides up to date, balanced assurance of the 3 significant topic parts comprising introductory thermal-fluid engineering: thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and warmth move. through emphasizing the physics and underlying actual phenomena concerned, the textual content encourages artistic imagine, improvement of a deeper knowing of the subject material, and is learn with enthusiasm and curiosity by way of either scholars and professors.
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The electrons in an atom rotate about the nucleus, and thus possess rotational kinetic energy. Electrons at outer orbits have larger kinetic energies. Electrons also spin about their axes, and the energy associated with this motion is the spin energy. Other particles in the nucleus of an atom also possess spin energy. The portion of the internal energy of a system associated with the kinetic energies of the molecules is called the sensible energy (Fig. 2–20). The average velocity and the degree of activity of the molecules are proportional to the temperature of the gas.
5 tons FIGURE 2–30 The average car produces several times its weight in CO2 every year (it is driven 12,000 miles a year, consumes 600 gallons of gasoline, and produces 20 lbm of CO2 per gallon). FIGURE 2–31 Renewable energies such as wind are called “green energy” since they emit no pollutants or greenhouse gases. qxd 11/17/03 1:57 PM Page 42 42 FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMAL-FLUID SCIENCES can save 18 million therms of natural gas a year. Determine the amount of NOx and CO2 emissions the geothermal system will save a year.
Motor vehicles also contribute to SO2 emissions since gasoline and diesel fuel also contain small amounts of sulfur. Volcanic eruptions and hot springs also release sulfur oxides (the cause of the rotten egg smell). The sulfur oxides and nitric oxides react with water vapor and other chemicals high in the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight to form sulfuric and nitric acids (Fig. 2–28). The acids formed usually dissolve in the suspended water droplets in clouds or fog. These acid-laden droplets, which can be as acidic as lemon juice, are washed from the air on to the soil by rain or snow.