John F. Vallentine (Auth.)'s Grazing Management PDF

Environmental Studies

By John F. Vallentine (Auth.)

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GRAZING VS. , 1988) and (2) w e r e d e v e l o p e d f r o m p e n f e d animals w h e r e m a i n t e n a n c e requirements are readily calculated and tend to v a r y only slightly within a g i v e n weight, sex, age, and p h y s i o l o g i c a l state (Wallace, 1984). M a i n t e n a n c e energy requirements include not only essential m e t a b o l i c processes but also b o d y temperature regulation and physical activity ( N R C , 1996). , 1988); these e n v i r o n m e n t a l effects h a v e b e e n s u m m a r i z e d by the National R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l (1981a).

Soils are heavily leached due to the high rainfall, resulting in frequent mineral deficiencies in the forage. The content of carotene (precursor of vitamin A) in herbaceous plants corn- 44 2 GRAZING HERBIVORE NUTRITION monly drops from a high of 450 ppm in early spring growth to virtually zero in cured, weathered grass. 2). The stems of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) were found by Twidwell et. al. (1987) not only to increase in dry-weight percentage with maturation but also to have large increases in acid detergent fiber and lignin and a large decline in in vitro dry matter digestibility.

1 Comparisonof digestive systems of the ruminant and the cecal digester. Ruminant (cow): A, right view; B, left view; C, stomach only. Cecal digester (horse): D, right view; E, left view; F, stomach only (Janis, 1976). A. , a member of the R u m i n a n t i a animal division. Included in Rurninantia is the large family Bovidae, which includes cattle, sheep, goat, yak, buffalo, bison, eland, gazelle, musk ox, and antelope. , 1978). The first three chambers of the ruminant stomach are the rumen, reticulum, and omasum (Fig.

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