Ground Water - M21 - download pdf or read online

By American Water Works Association

This guide presents operators, engineers, and different pros with a simple figuring out of groundwater that may support them make judgements on water-well layout and operation.The guide covers geology, groundwater move, groundwater caliber, regulatory matters, water-well forms and development, pumps, water therapy, water-well difficulties, and groundwater recharge and garage.

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Water containing high concentrations of sodium or boron will be unsuitable for irrigation. Although the biological quality of deeper groundwater is usually good, testing for fecal bacteria and other microbiological indicators should be performed periodically. In recent years, a wide variety of constituents that can be harmful even in extremely low concentrations have become a concern. Unfortunately, analyses to detect all of these chemicals can be expensive, so analytical methods used should be directed toward detection of s uspected compounds.

The gamma log is useful because it can be run in cased walls. Gamma-gamma logs. Gamma-gamma logs (also called radioactive tracer logs or surveys) are obtained by introducing a gamma radiation-emitting material into the borehole (usually cesium-137 or cobalt-60) and measuring the intensity of the backscattered radiation. The back-scattered radiation detected by the probe is proportional to the density of electrons in the formation, which is in turn correlated with the bulk density of the rock. Gamma-gamma logs provide information on lithology and porosity.

Aquifer Testing Methods of aquifer testing will be discussed in detail in chapter 4 of this manual. However, aquifer testing is very useful during exploration of test holes, and many effective methods are now available for performing such testing. In the simplest form, a record of flow rates of the water produced at different depths while drilling with air is a form of aquifer testing, yielding valuable information. Exploratory Drilling In some instances, existing wells may not be located in a potential water supply aquifer, and drilling one or more exploratory wells into the aquifer is necessary.

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