Download e-book for kindle: Hydrogeology: Objectives, Methods, Applications by Éric Gilli

Environmental Studies

By Éric Gilli

Hydrogeology, the technology of groundwater, calls for a multidisciplinary procedure concerning many different sciences: floor hydrology, climatology, geology, geography, physics, chemistry, biology, and extra. This ebook takes a huge view, considers water as a unmarried entity, and offers many examples illustrating the diversity of current hydrogeological difficulties and the varied medical, technical, and social techniques utilized in resolving them. it's meant basically for college kids of Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, and actual Geography. it's going to even be helpful to all avid gamers excited by water-related concerns: hydrogeologists, geologists, soil scientists, agronomists, civil engineers, and builders.

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That said, water forms a single unit: precipitation, surface water, ice, and subterranean water are all parts of a continuous cycle. Hydrogeology therefore cannot be separated from surface hydrology, climatology, geology, and geography. Furthermore, as with all modern sciences, it calls on the countless domains included in physics, chemistry, and biology. As water becomes more and more valuable, hydrogeologists are also confronted with social and political problems. More, perhaps, than any other science, hydrogeology today requires an interdisciplinary approach.

A large percentage of the water had therefore disappeared. Mariotte (1620–1684) came to the same conclusion, and during the same period, Halley (1656–1742) quantified evaporation. The motor bringing water from ocean to mountains and the mechanism for desalinization were thus discovered at the same time. The modern conception of the water cycle was, then, born in the 17th century, after more than two thousand years of debate amongst the greatest scientists on the planet. 5 The birth of hydrogeology The basic concepts of infiltration having been already laid down, the mechanisms governing water once it reached the surface of the soil were refined and clarified by La Métherie (1791).

This less-permeable silt partially constrains alluvial gravel and sand aquifers, and gives them a semi-confined character. The Infiltration of Water Below Ground and the Concept of an Aquifer 35 Lithology therefore plays an important role in hydrogeologic features: aquifers within which water circulates due to gravity, thanks to large-scale solid elements (gravel, sand, sandstone), aquitards containing water with low mobility (silt, clayey sand), aquicludes containing water that is slow to renew (clay, marl).

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