Maurizio Viroli's Machiavelli (Founders of Modern Political and Social PDF

Science Medicine

By Maurizio Viroli

This ebook offers a serious exam of Machiavelli's inspiration, combining an available, historically-informed account of his paintings with a reassessment of his valuable rules and arguments. Viroli demanding situations the authorised interpretations of Machiavelli's paintings, insisting that his republicanism was once established now not on a dedication to advantage, greatness, and growth, yet to the precise of civic lifestyles safe via the safeguard of reasonable legislation. His distinct research of ways Machiavelli composed The Prince deals a few new interpretations and he additional contends that the main challenging--and underestimated--aspect of Machiavelli's notion is his philosophy of existence, specifically his conceptions of affection, ladies, irony, God, and the human situation.

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The ordinances establishing the Paris Faculty of Medicine in 1803 and the Academy of Medicine in 1820 specified that these institutions should The Rise of Specialties in Early Nineteenth-Century Paris 15 be devoted to the advancement of medical knowledge. 65 In these state institutions, models of disciplinary specialization were first elaborated. But administrative logic also operated on another plane, making possible the flourishing of research in a network of specialized hospitals. Unlike the private, semi-entrepreneurial institutions of London, these were part of an extensive municipal system that was set up after the French Revolution.

40 One form that such visibility for specialists took in Paris was a slowly growing trade in private teaching of specialties. Among forty-four private courses listed in Hubert’s Almanach of 1830,41 there are only ten specialty courses, seven of them devoted to obstetrics; of the three others, Pierre-Paul Broc taught a course in andrology; Octave Lesuer, in legal medicine and toxicology; and P. S. Ségalas in diseases of the genito-urinary organs. Twenty years later, however, Meding’s directory listed eighty-nine private courses being offered.

The crux of my argument here is that emerging specialization in Paris was based on the coming together of a system of career competition based on some notion of advancing medical knowledge—which itself promoted specialization—with classificatory categories that emerged from efforts to impose bureaucratic rationality on huge institutional structures. Both these elements were promoted directly, though in quite different ways, by the French state. Fifth, there was no sharp distinction between medical research and practice because, except for a handful of laboratory scientists or specialists in public health, research was based in clinical practice, most often though not exclusively in hospitals.

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