Download e-book for iPad: Mathematics in Western Culture by Morris Kline

Ancient Classical

By Morris Kline

"[Kline] is unfalteringly transparent in explaining mathematical principles; he's realized yet no longer pedantic; he has old discernment, a sympathetic social outlook and a pleasant experience of enjoyable and irony.... the wonder and fascination and infrequent excellence of arithmetic emerge from his tale. it truly is a thrilling, provocative e-book. - clinical American"Still the easiest textbook for the heritage and philosophy of arithmetic for undergraduate liberal arts scholars. specifically reliable for the age of the clinical Revulution. - Janet A. Fitzgerald, Molloy collage, NYProduct DescriptionThis publication offers a remarkably fantastic account of the affects arithmetic has exerted at the improvement of philosophy, the actual sciences, faith, and the humanities in Western lifestyles.

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THE BIRTH OF THE MATHEMATICAL SPIRIT 2Q Another explanation of the Greek preference for deduction is found in the organization of their society. The philosophers, mathematicians, and artists were members of the highest social class. This upper stratum either completely disdained commercial pursuits and manual work or regarded them as unfortunate necessities. Work injured the body and took time from intellectual and social activities and the duties of citizenship. Famous Greeks spoke out unequivocally about their disdain of work and business.

Famous Greeks spoke out unequivocally about their disdain of work and business. The Pythagoreans, an influential school of philosophers and religionists we shall soon meet, boasted that they had raised arithmetic, the tool of commerce, above the needs of merchants. They sought knowledge, not wealth. Arithmetic, said Plato, should be pursued for knowledge and not for trade. Moreover, he declared the trade of a shopkeeper to be a degradation for a freeman and wished the pursuit of it to be punished as a crime.

16 times the square of the radius. This is not correct though close enough for the uses the Egyptians made of it. The Egyptians and Babylonians made numerous practical applications of their mathematics. Their papyri and clay tablets show promissory notes, letters of credit, mortgages, deferred payments, and the proper apportionment of business profits. Although arithmetic and algebra were used in such commercial transactions, geometrical formulas produced the areas of fields and the amounts of grain stored in cylindrical and pyramidal granaries.

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