Download e-book for iPad: MRI Basic Principles and Applications by Brian M. Dale, Mark A. Brown, Richard C. Semelka
By Brian M. Dale, Mark A. Brown, Richard C. Semelka
This 5th version of the main obtainable advent to MRI ideas and functions from well known lecturers within the box presents an comprehensible but entire update.
- Accessible introductory consultant from well known lecturers within the field
- Provides a concise but thorough creation for MRI concentrating on basic physics, pulse sequences, and scientific functions with no offering complicated math
- Takes a pragmatic procedure, together with updated protocols, and helps technical ideas with thorough factors and illustrations
- Highlights sections which are without delay correct to radiology board exams
- Presents new details at the most modern experiment strategies and purposes together with three Tesla entire physique scanners, issues of safety, and the nephrotoxic results of gadolinium-based distinction media
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Additional resources for MRI Basic Principles and Applications
In MRI, the magnetic field is made spatially dependent through the application of magnetic field gradients. These gradients are small perturbations superimposed on the main magnetic field B0, with a typical imaging gradient producing a total field variation of less than 1%. They are also linear perturbations to B0, so that the exact magnetic field is linearly dependent on the location inside the magnet: Bi = B0 + GT ri (4-1) where Bi is the magnetic field at location ri and GT is the total gradient amplitude, mathematically represented as a tensor.
Once GPE is turned off, the proton precession returns to its original frequency, but is ahead or behind in phase relative to its previous state. The amount of induced phase shift depends on the magnitude and duration of GPE that the proton experienced and the proton location. Protons located at different positions in the phase encoding direction experience different amounts of phase shift for the same GPE pulse (Figure 4-7). A proton located at the edge of the chosen FOV experiences the maximum amount of phase shift from each phase encoding step.
The principle of phase encoding is based on the fact that the proton precession is periodic in nature. Prior to the application of GPE, a proton within a slice precesses at the base frequency 0. In the presence of GPE, its precessional frequency increases or decreases according to Equation 4-2. Once GPE is turned off, the proton precession returns to its original frequency, but is ahead or behind in phase relative to its previous state. The amount of induced phase shift depends on the magnitude and duration of GPE that the proton experienced and the proton location.