New PDF release: Navigational Enterprises in Europe and its Empires,

Science Medicine

By Rebekah Higgitt, Richard Dunn, Peter Jones

This booklet explores the improvement of navigation within the eighteenth and 19th centuries. It examines the function of guys of technology, seamen and practitioners throughout Europe, and the realities of navigational perform, exhibiting that previous and new equipment have been complementary now not particular, their use depending on many competing elements.

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Extra info for Navigational Enterprises in Europe and its Empires, 1730–1850

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The courses encompassed the whole of navigation, from elementary mathematics to the determination of latitude by double altitudes, the use of sextants and timekeepers and the determination of longitude by lunar distances. In addition, the state introduced optional exams on the theory of navigation for mates in the merchant marine. These were similar to the (compulsory) ones for mates in the Navy, which were graded from fourth to first mate. The then chairman of the Longitude Committee, Schröder, drew up the regulations for the exams and public lecturers.

The main sources of information for the Committee were in Britain and France, with the emphasis clearly shifting to Britain after the Napoleonic Wars. The Committee’s activities had much greater impact in the Navy than in the mercantile marine, especially after its members became responsible for examining officers and mates. In the merchant marine, changes in navigational technology from the 1820s onwards owed more to initiatives from local governments, private entrepreneurs and organizations of navigators than to state initiatives.

1995), a readable book that has made our subject widely popular. 5. Richard Dunn and Rebekah Higgitt, Finding Longitude: How Ships, Clocks and Stars Helped Solve the Longitude Problem (Glasgow: Collins, 2014), p. 9. 6. I refer to the phrase coined by C. A. Bayly, The Imperial Meridian. The British Empire and the World, 1780–1830 (London & New York: Longman, 1989); see also David Todd, ‘A French Imperial Meridian, 1814–1870’, Past and Present, 210 (2011), 155–86. 7. On Pedro Nunes, see the works of Henrique Leitão, including his edition of his complete works: Pedro Nunes, Obras, ed.

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