Neurobiology of Opioids - download pdf or read online
By H. W. Kosterlitz (auth.), Dr. Osborne F. X. Almeida, Dr. Toni S. Shippenberg (eds.)
Dedicated to Professor Albert Herz, a number one investigator in opioid study, this booklet offers complete details at the biology of exogenous and endogenous opioids. Contributions via specialists within the box speak about contemporary advances and supply systematic, up to date experiences of the body structure and pharmacology of opioids, in addition to at the mobile and molecular mechanisms underlying opioid activities. In acceptance of the various methodologies now to be had to researchers, each one bankruptcy info the methods used to handle a selected factor and gives an in-depth research of the knowledge received by means of those numerous experimental methods. The scientific relevance of contemporary findings, in addition to destiny instructions, in opioid study also are mentioned. This quantity therefore represents a well timed and beneficial sourcebook for researchers, clinicians, and scholars drawn to opioids and peptidergic systems.
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Additional resources for Neurobiology of Opioids
1988d). Repetitive stimulation of the amygdala (kindling) of rats, which resulted in a progressive development of generalized seizures, causes a marked increase in hippocampal levels ofPENK mRNA (Naranjo et al. 1986a). These data suggest that the PENK system might participate in the development of kindling phenomena. A similar increase in hippocampal PENK mRNA levels was found in rats with recurrent limbic seizures induced by contralateral lesions of the dentate gyrus hilus (Gall et al. 1981). Moreover, direct electrical stimulation of the dentate gyrus granule cells markedly increases levels of PENK mRNA at the site of stimulation (Morris et al.
Although the activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters can enhance PENK mRNA levels, phorbol esters inhibit the stimulatory effect of depolarizing agents on PENK biosynthesis (Kley 1988; Pruss and Stauderman 1988). Phorbol esters appear to inhibit PENK gene expression by inactivating voltage-dependent Ca 2 + channels, indicating that a sustained elevation of intracellular Ca 2 + is necessary to increase ENK synthesis in chromaffin cells. Although muscarine activates phospholipase C (Noble et al.
1988c; de Keyzer et al. 1989b). The relative activities of these promoters appear to be increased in some nonpituitary tumors. However, another study, in which a variety of human tumors was analyzed, indicated that most POMC transcripts in tumors originated from the conventional promoter. The size heterogeneities observed was due to longer poly-(A) tails (Clark et al. 1989). In addition, some tumors expressed a short POMC mRNA (800 bp) which may lack the first two exollS. Immune System There is increasing evidence that POMC-derived peptides playa functional role in the immune system.